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Hardware & Software - Secondary
Material Image
Microcredential ID : 26
Stack
Computing Systems - Secondary
Credits
0.5 PTSB Recertification Credit

Description

This micro-credential represents the knowledge of how to teach the use of computing in a secondary classroom to support student learning of how systems use both hardware and software to represent and process information. As students progress, they gain a deeper understanding of the interaction between hardware and software at multiple levels within computing systems. Computing systems use hardware and software to communicate and process information in digital form. Please locate "01. PROFICIENCY SCALE – Computing Systems – Hardware & Software" under resources to view specific Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers included in this micro-credential.

Standards
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Equity and Inclusion
    2d - Use data for decision-making to improve equity. Create and implement a plan to improve access, engagement, and full participation in CS using classroom data to inform decision-making.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Professional Growth and Identity
    3e - Leverage community resources. Identify and connect resources in the local community and broader CS ecosystem to support student learning in CS.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4a - Analyze CS curricula. Analyze CS curricula for implementation in their classrooms in terms of CS standards alignment, accuracy, completeness of content, cultural relevance, and accessibility.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4b - Develop standards-aligned learning experiences. Design and adapt learning experiences that align to comprehensive K-12 CS standards.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4g - Inform instruction through assessment. Develop multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. Use resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Hardware & Software
    8.CS.HS.01 - Design and refine a project that combines hardware and software components to collect and exchange data.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Hardware & Software
    L1.CS.HS.01 - Explain the interactions between application software, system software, and hardware layers.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Hardware & Software
    L2.CS.HS.01 - Categorize the roles of operating system software.
How To Earn This Microcredential

To earn this micro-credential you will process through the ADDIE learning model producing evidence that demonstrates your knowledge of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers. Through the ADDIE learning model you will analyze standards, design/develop and implement a lesson, collect student work artifacts, and evaluate your professional practices.

Fees
There will be no fee assessed for reviewing this microcredential.
Clarifications

The hardware & software micro-credential is one of three micro-credentials that make up the computing systems stack. The computing systems stack is one of six micro-credential stacks which when completed will lead to a Computer Science Teacher Master Distinction.

Important Terms
Accessibility:

The design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities. Accessibility standards that are generally accepted by professional groups include the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) standards. [Wikipedia]

Computer science:

The study of computing principles, design, and applications (hardware and software); the creation, access, and use of information through algorithms and problem-solving; and the impact of computing on society.

Self efficacy:

An individual’s belief in his/her ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task.

Universal design for learning (UDL):

A framework for designing curriculum to be broadly accessible to all students. (See UDL for Learning Guidelines + Computer Science/Computational Thinking in the resources)

Complete knowledge:

All of the skills listed in the proficient level of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards (see the resources) for a chosen standard.

K–14:

Refers to computer science standards ranging from kindergarten into postsecondary education.

Scope and sequence:

Scope refers to the topics and areas of development within a curriculum, and sequence is the order in which those skills are taught.

Grade band:

The computer science standards are written in grade bands (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12). The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standards to be met by the end of the grade band. In grades 9–12, there are level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. Level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science.

Chosen grade band:

The teacher or earner can choose which secondary grade band and standard to focus their lesson on.

Supporting computer science standard:

There is a difference between supporting standards and performance standards. All students are expected to be instructed on supporting computer science standards, taught within the context of the performance standards. Supporting standards do not need to be assessed through the district assessment system. If no supporting standards are listed on the "Micro-credential Map by Grade Band" (see the resources), this area becomes N/A.

Performance standards:

The Wyoming Content and Performance Standards serve several purposes. They articulate a set of expectations for what students should know and be able to do, enabling them to be prepared for college and career success; to live a life that contributes to the global community. These expectations are communicated to students, parents, educators, and all other Wyoming stakeholders, and provide a common understanding among educators as to what students should learn at particular grades. Standards do not dictate methodology, instructional materials used, or how the material is delivered. (See Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards in the resources.)

Abstraction:

Process: The process of reducing complexity by focusing on the main idea. By hiding details irrelevant to the question at hand and bringing together related and useful details, abstraction reduces complexity and allows one to focus on the problem. Product: A new representation of a thing, a system, or a problem that helpfully reframes a problem by hiding details irrelevant to the question at hand. [MO DESE, 2016]

Computing device:

A physical device that uses hardware and software to receive, process, and output information. This may include computers, mobile phones, and computer chips.

Computing system:

A collection of one or more computers or computing devices, together with their hardware and software, integrated for the purpose of accomplishing shared tasks. Although a computing system can be limited to a single computer or computing device, it more commonly refers to a collection of multiple connected computers, computing devices, and hardware.

Hardware:

The physical components that make up a computing system, computer, or computing device.

Input:

Verb: The signals or instructions sent to a computer. [Techopedia]; Noun: A device or component that allows information to be given to a computer. [code.org]

Operating system:

Software that communicates with the hardware and allows other programs to run.

Output:

Any device or component that receives information from a computer.

Software:

Programs that run on a computing system, computer, or other computing device.

System Software:

The files and programs that make up your computer's operating system.

Modalities of assessment:

Modalities of assessment include written assessment, oral assessment, performance tasks, or visual representations.

Forms of assessment:

These include formative, summative, or student self-assessment.

Background Scenario / How This Will Help You

This micro-credential collection provides earners with the opportunity to document their knowledge and skills in teaching computer science to students in grades 6–12. The content provides resources to support understanding.

Earners are encouraged to participate in additional learning opportunities if more extensive learning is needed. Additional learning opportunities may include free online resources, postsecondary courses, and local courses.

The micro-credential structure offers earners flexible pathways and timelines. Earners can complete the micro-credentials in any order that aligns with their classroom timelines and availability. Micro-credentials offer earners the opportunity to submit evidence and receive evaluator feedback. Earners are encouraged to resubmit evidence until mastery is earned. Each resubmission will be reviewed and updated feedback will be provided.

Evidence Options
Candidates are required to submit multiple pieces of evidence.
Category: Analyze

Complete the ADDIE learning model by preparing evidence for each of the following tasks below: ANALYZE, DESIGN/DEVELOP, IMPLEMENT, and EVALUATE. Once completed upload evidence for review.

Analyze: Standards:

Complete "02. ANALYZE – Computing Systems – Hardware & Software" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload it in the evidence section as a PDF. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/2UsJrCE.

Category: Design/Develop

Design or revise a lesson plan that incorporates the Wyoming standards for Computing Systems focus standard chosen during the Analyze task.

Lesson Plan:

Find "03. DESIGN/DEVELOP" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you are finished with this task, upload your lesson plan in the evidence section as a PDF. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/2Urhzik.

Category: Implement

Implement the set of activities or lesson plan you designed and upload annotated student artifacts. You must submit all 2 pieces of evidence

Implementation:

Implement the set of activities or lesson plan you designed. Submit evidence of student learning for your focus standard. Include evidence of students that have met the standard and students that have not met the standard. Examples include videos of students working, completed student worksheets, etc. Annotate each piece of evidence to demonstrate how you facilitated student achievement of the standard.

Category: Evaluate

Create worksheet with eval questions

Journal:

Find "04. EVALUATE – Worksheet" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/3xMingf.


Review Criteria

Evidence submissions and reflections will be reviewed for alignment with the assignment guidelines and this proficiency scale, found here: https://bit.ly/3dPzSob. This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential: https://bit.ly/3q2yKEJ.

Reflection Prompts

Please provide a self-assessment, a score from 1–4, on each component of the proficiency scale found here: https://bit.ly/3dPzSob. Provide a few sentences stating where the pieces of evidence that support the scores for each component are located.

If you are resubmitting, please indicate what changes were made in the documents (e.g., highlight, text color) and include "Resubmission #" with the resubmission number in the file title when you upload.


Review Criteria

Proficiency scale: https://bit.ly/3dPzSob. Checklist: https://bit.ly/3q2yKEJ.

Content knowledge – CSTA 4a The teacher demonstrates accurate and complete knowledge of the content and skills of the standard being taught.

Inform instruction through assessment – CSTA 4g The teacher develops multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. The teacher uses resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.

Supporting standards The teacher identifies and explains the connection of supporting CS standards to the standard being taught in their lesson.

Vertical alignment – CSTA 4b The teacher explains the relationship of the standard in the scope and sequence of computer science standards directly above and below chosen grade band.

Use data for decision-making to improve equity – CSTA 2d The teacher creates a plan to improve access, engagement, or full participation in computer science using classroom data to inform decision-making.

Leverage community resources – CSTA 3e The teacher explains how they are using their school, local or broader computer science community resources to support student learning.

Resources
Tool – Computer Science is for Everyone: A Toolkit for Middle and High Schools to Increase Diversity in Computer Science Education
https://www.ncwit.org/resources/computer-science-everyone-toolkit-middle-and-high-schools-increase-diversity-computer

The insights and tools in this kit will help ensure all young people understand the value of a computer science education and feel welcomed and empowered to succeed.


Tool – UDL for Learning Guidelines + Computer Science/Computational Thinking
https://ctrl.education.ufl.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2020/05/Copy-of-UDL-and-CS_CT-remix.pdf

UDL is a framework for designing curriculum to be broadly accessible to ALL students. Learn more about utilizing the UDL framework in computer science education.


Article – Computer Systems
https://cnx.org/contents/nyJOW0xZ@1.1:YR-mx6Ft@1/Computer-Systems

This resource will help teachers identify the different parts and understand the terminology of computing systems.


Research – Engagement in Computer Science and IT -- What! A Matter of Identity?
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235902115_Engagement_in_Computer_Science_and_IT_--_What_A_Matter_of_Identity

This research article covers student identity in computer science and its impact on engagement.


Article – 3 Ways Student Data Can Inform Your Teaching
https://www.edutopia.org/blog/using-student-data-inform-teaching-rebecca-alber

This article gives ideas on how to use student data to inform decision making in the classroom.


Webpage – CS for All Teachers
https://www.csforallteachers.org/

CS for All Teachers is a virtual community of practice, welcoming all teachers from PreK through high school who are interested in teaching computer science.


Webpage – CSTA Wyoming
https://web.membernova.com/400361/page/about-us

CSTA Wyoming's website so teachers can join.


Lesson Plan – Unit 4 – The Design Process
https://curriculum.code.org/csd-20/unit4/

Code.org unit on designing and refining artifacts.


Lesson Plan – CSD Unit 6 – Physical Computing ('20-'21)
https://studio.code.org/s/csd6-2020?section_id=2453524

Unit 6 is all about physical computing and the role of hardware platforms in computing.


Article – How Does Software and Hardware Work Together?
https://incomputersolutions.com/qa/how-does-software-and-hardware-work-together.html

Q&A format to discuss the relationships between hardware and software.


Article – Role of the Operating System
https://isaaccomputerscience.org/concepts/sys_os_role_of_os

Resource describing the different roles of the operating system.


Standards – CSTA Standards for Computer Science Teachers
https://www.csteachers.org/page/standards-for-cs-teachers

These standards are designed to provide clear guidance on effective and equitable computer science instruction in support of rigorous computer science education for all K–12 students.


Article – Assessing Students' Computational Thinking Application in Core Subject Areas
https://csforall.medium.com/assessing-students-computational-thinking-application-in-core-subject-areas-b6799b117493

This article discusses how computational thinking skills were integrated and assessed in New York City elementary schools.


Article – Assessment Considerations: A Simple Heuristic
https://jaredoleary.com/publications/assessment-considerations-a-simple-heuristic

This article discusses different types of assessments and what to consider when choosing an assessment.


Article – Differentiation: How Do I Use Data to Adjust Instruction for Groups and Individual Students?
https://practices.learningaccelerator.org/problem-of-practice/data-differentiation-how-do-i-use-data-to-inform-instruction-for-groups-and-individual-students

Step-by-step guide showing teachers how they can change their lessons or classroom based on data.


01. PROFICIENCY SCALE – Computing Systems – Hardware & Software
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1mwAIrQcqn8duv8oJBvahRIOQJq2Jq_l1h345bZjjjyk/copy

This scale is provided as a resource for learners to view micro-credential criterion and the performance descriptor levels for demonstration of mastery.


Micro-Credential Map By Grade Band
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1E6pQDbFCQ42O1FUzQIakJS9CRKraHiORCXdUXmdcBCw/copy#gid=1114401374

The computer science standards are written in grade bands (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12). The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standard to be met by the end of each grade band. In grades 9-12, there are level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. Level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science. The teacher or earner can choose which grade band and standard to focus their lesson on.


03. DESIGN/DEVELOP
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Vboh_Hu3kK53uYJZCcQlDLCB6NTRwVPxvCyszP4zhUY/copy

Use this resource for the design/develop step of the ADDIE model.


04. EVALUATE – Worksheet
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1eevTS3Ay1X9nbtSvWvUjX7yj6DwaiZYEAAsyuNGlEb4/copy

Evaluate how effective your activities were at promoting student learning of the standards. Use specific examples from the artifacts you submitted in Implement and suggest any changes in practice or approach that you might make in the future based on your experience with this micro-credential.


Standards – Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards
https://edu.wyoming.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/2020-CS-WYCPS-with-all-PLDs-effective-04.07.21.pdf

Performance Level Descriptors (PLDs) describe the performance expectations of students for each of the four (4) performance level categories: advanced, proficient, basic, and below basic. These are a description of what students within each performance level are expected to know and be able to do. All PLDs are found in this document.


02. ANALYZE – Computing Systems – Hardware & Software
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1nIacFpqs3nOUg_bXkT594oav1MWr314YE4vD29ySgDs/copy

Analyze the student and teacher standards aligned with the Computing Systems - Hardware & Software micro-credential. Aligned standards and instructions for selecting a focus standard are outlined below the task description. There are two parts to this task.


Video – Hardware and Software
https://youtu.be/VzVSt6jxiqw

Engineering manager Erica Gomez, program manager Jerome Holman, and Microsoft founder Bill Gates explain how a computer's hardware and software work together.


Video – Operating Systems: Crash Course Computer Science #18
https://youtu.be/26QPDBe-NB8

This video traces the development of operating systems from the Multics and Atlas Supervisor to Unix and MS-DOS, and take at look at how these systems heavily influenced popular OSes like Linux, Windows, MacOS, and Android that we use today.


Video – Data-driven Education
https://youtu.be/L3eO8gYmWCc

Khurram Virani discusses the similarities and differences between technology and education, focusing on the use of data in the classroom to personalize learning.


Article – "Unwrapping" the Standards: A Simple Way to Deconstruct Learning Outcomes
https://corwin-connect.com/2015/03/unwrapping-the-standards-a-simple-way-to-deconstruct-learning-outcomes/

“Unwrapping” is a simple method that all teachers in all grade levels can use to deconstruct the wording of any standard in order to know its meaning inside and out.


Sample Response – Completed Devices Micro-Credential
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ESoWRRdNZRjruO2j-1eq4CUU3YoWLlh1/view?usp=sharing

This resource includes a sample response for analyze, design/develop, implement, and analyze as well as a sample reflection prompt response for the devices micro-credential.


Video Tutorial: Platform Navigation Tutorias
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hUZSMULBOzj-_CmIo2zuiZG2QziB40D_qBOXqAc5P5k/edit?usp=sharing

This is a list of videos that support navigation of the Midas platform. Including how to submit micro-credentials for review.


Video Tutorial: Unpacking Wyoming Computer Science Standards
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1fy_LGu8NWKlbhJWlGblE01V520kGsPJ6/view?usp=sharing

This video helps for unpacking the Wyoming Computer Science standards as part of the micro-credential.


Video Tutorial: Best Practice in Google Drive Organization
https://drive.google.com/file/d/15WPbS__MRNpSGpEyTWWocd362qK6piZX/view?usp=sharing

This video provides best practices in Google Drive organization for the micro-credentials.


Video Tutorial: Completing the CSTA CS Teacher Standard Analyze Task
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1STn9CNmjxjjosyglv_-VbQxUOevp8Ax7/view?usp=sharing

This video gives pointers on completing the CSTA CS teacher standard analyze task for the micro-credential.


Hardware and Software Micro-credential Checklist
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1IR212UOvEHhAp_ldPDCbMHhSeghUIJEF5BEFudTU_YU/copy

This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential.

Earners
Jennifer Anderson

Jennifer Anderson
Kiesa Geyer

Kiesa Geyer
Abby Hurley

Abby Hurley
Debbie Jacobson

Debbie Jacobson
Amanda Martin

Amanda Martin
Anna McClure

Anna McClure
Walt Smith

Walt Smith

Wyoming Department of Education

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Cheyenne, WY 82002

Phone: (307) 777-7675 

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