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Storage - Secondary
Material Image
Microcredential ID : 33
Stack
Data & Analysis - Secondary
Credits
0.5 PTSB Recertification Credit

Description

This micro-credential represents the knowledge of how to teach storage in a secondary classroom to support students learning of how data is stored on computers. As students progress, they learn how to evaluate different storage methods, including the tradeoffs associated with these methods. Students learn that the core functions of computers are storing, representing, and retrieving data. Please locate "01. PROFICIENCY SCALE – Data & Analysis – Storage" under resources to view specific Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers included in this micro-credential.

Standards
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4a - Analyze CS curricula. Analyze CS curricula for implementation in their classrooms in terms of CS standards alignment, accuracy, completeness of content, cultural relevance, and accessibility.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4b - Develop standards-aligned learning experiences. Design and adapt learning experiences that align to comprehensive K-12 CS standards.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4g - Inform instruction through assessment. Develop multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. Use resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Classroom Practice
    5f - Guide students' use of feedback. Use formative assessments to provide timely, specific, and actionable feedback to students and to adjust instruction. Develop students’ ability to interpret and use feedback from computers, teachers, peers, and community.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Storage
    2.DA.S.01 - With guidance, develop and modify an organizational structure by creating, copying, moving, and deleting files and folders.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Storage
    5.DA.S.01 - Justify the format and location for storing data based on sharing requirements and the type of information (e.g., images, videos, text).
How To Earn This Microcredential

To earn this micro-credential you will process through the ADDIE learning model producing evidence that demonstrates your knowledge of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers. Through the ADDIE learning model you will analyze standards, design/develop and implement a lesson, collect student work artifacts, and evaluate your professional practices.

Fees
There will be no fee assessed for reviewing this microcredential.
Clarifications

The storage micro-credential is one of three micro-credentials that make up the data & analysis stack. The data & analysis stack is one of six micro-credential stacks which when completed will lead to a Computer Science Teacher Master Distinction.

Important Terms
Complete knowledge:

All of the skills listed in the proficient level of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards (see the resources) for the chosen standard.

K–14:

Refers to computer science standards ranging from kindergarten into postsecondary education.

Scope and sequence:

Scope refers to the topics and areas of development within a curriculum, and sequence is the order in which those skills are taught.

Grade band:

The computer science standards are written in grade bands (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12). The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standard to be met by the end of the grade band. In grades 9–12, there are level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. Level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science.

Chosen grade band:

The teacher or earner can choose which secondary grade band and standard to focus their lesson around.

Supporting computer science standard:

There is a difference between supporting standards and performance standards. All students are expected to be instructed on supporting computer science standards, taught within the context of the performance standards. Supporting standards do not need to be assessed through the district assessment system. If no supporting standards are listed on the "Micro-credential Map by Grade Band" in the resources, this area becomes N/A.

Performance standards:

The Wyoming Content and Performance Standards serve several purposes. They articulate a set of expectations for what students should know and be able to do, enabling them to be prepared for college and career success; to live a life that contributes to the global community. These expectations are communicated to students, parents, educators, and all other Wyoming stakeholders, and provide a common understanding among educators as to what students should learn at particular grades. Standards do not dictate methodology, instructional materials used, or how the material is delivered. (See Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards in the resources.)

Analog data:

The defining characteristic of data that is represented in a continuous, physical way. Whereas digital data is a set of individual symbols, analog data is stored in physical media, such as the surface grooves on a vinyl record, the magnetic tape of a VCR cassette, or other non digital media.

App:

A type of application software designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Also known as a mobile application.

Classroom climate:

The prevailing mood, attitudes, standards, and tone that students and teachers feel when they are in the classroom.

Computational artifact :

Anything created by a human using a computational thinking process and a computing device. A computational artifact can be, but is not limited to, a program, image, audio, video, presentation, or web page file.

Computational thinking:

The thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solutions in such a way that a computer (human or machine) can effectively carry them out.

Computer science:

The study of computing principles, design, and applications (hardware and software); the creation, access, and use of information through algorithms and problem-solving; and the impact of computing on society.

Data:

Information that is collected and used for reference or analysis. Data can be digital or nondigital and can be in many forms, including numbers, text, show of hands, images, sounds, or video.

Data structure:

A particular way to store and organize data within a computer program to suit a specific purpose so that it can be accessed a nd worked with in appropriate ways.

Data type:

A classification of data that is distinguished by its attributes and the types of operations that can be performed on it. Some common data types are integer, string, Boolean (true or false), and floating-point.

Encoding:

The process of converting data from one form to another.

Inference:

A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.

Integrity :

The overall completeness, accuracy, and consistency of data.

Model:

A representation of some part of a problem or a system. [MDESE, 2016] Note: This definition differs from that used in science.

Reliability :

Consistently produces the same results, preferably meeting or exceeding its requirements.

Unconscious bias:

Prejudice or unsupported judgments in favor of or against one thing, person, or group as compared to another, in a way that is usually considered unfair.

Stereotype threat:

Being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's social group

Universal design for learning (UDL):

A framework for designing curriculum to be broadly accessible to all students. (See UDL for Learning Guidelines + Computer Science/Computational Thinking in the resources)

Modalities of assessment:

Modalities of assessment include written assessment, oral assessment, performance tasks, or visual representations.

Forms of assessment:

These include formative, summative, or student self-assessment.

Background Scenario / How This Will Help You

This micro-credential collection provides earners with the opportunity to document their knowledge and skills in teaching computer science to students in grades 6–12. The content provides resources to support understanding.

Earners are encouraged to participate in additional learning opportunities if more extensive learning is needed. Additional learning opportunities may include free online resources, postsecondary courses, and local courses.

The micro-credential structure offers earners flexible pathways and timelines. Earners can complete the micro-credentials in any order that aligns with their classroom timelines and availability. Micro-credentials offer earners the opportunity to submit evidence and receive evaluator feedback. Earners are encouraged to resubmit evidence until mastery is earned. Each resubmission will be reviewed and updated feedback will be provided.

Evidence Options
Candidates are required to submit multiple pieces of evidence.
Category: Analyze

Analyze: Standards This task requires an analysis of both computer science content standards and the CSTA Standards for Computer Science Teachers.

Analyze: Standards:

All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload it in the evidence section as a PDF.

02. ANALYZE – Data & Analysis – Storage.docx

Category: Design/Develop

Lesson Plan:

Find "03. DESIGN/DEVELOP" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you are finished with this task, upload your lesson plan in the evidence section as a PDF. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/2Urhzik.

Category: Implement

Implementation:

Implement the set of activities or lesson plan you designed. Submit evidence of student learning for your focus standard. Include evidence of students that have met the standard and students that have not met the standard. Examples include videos of students working, completed student worksheets, etc. Annotate each piece of evidence to demonstrate how you facilitated student achievement of the standard.

Category: Evaluate

Journal:

Find "04. EVALUATE – Worksheet" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/3xMingf.


Review Criteria

Evidence submissions and reflections will be reviewed for alignment with the assignment guidelines and this proficiency scale, found here: https://bit.ly/35Ylea7. This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential: https://bit.ly/3w9NgeY.

Reflection Prompts

Please provide a self-assessment, a score from 1–4, on each component of the proficiency scale found here: https://bit.ly/35Ylea7. Provide a few sentences stating where the pieces of evidence that support the scores for each component are located.

If you are resubmitting, please indicate what changes were made in the documents (e.g., highlight, text color) and include "Resubmission #" with the resubmission number in the file title when you upload.


Review Criteria

Proficiency scale: https://bit.ly/35Ylea7. Checklist: https://bit.ly/3w9NgeY.

Content knowledge – CSTA 4a The teacher demonstrates accurate and complete knowledge of the content and skills of the standard being taught.

Inform instruction through assessment – CSTA 4g The teacher develops multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. The teacher uses resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.

Supporting standards The teacher identifies and explains the connection of supporting computer science standards to the standard being taught in their lesson.

Vertical alignment – CSTA 4b The teacher explains the relationship of the standard in the scope and sequence of computer science standards directly above and below chosen grade band.

Guide students' use of feedback – CSTA 5f The teacher uses formative assessments to provide timely, specific, and actionable feedback to students, and to adjust instruction. The teacher develops students’ ability to interpret and use feedback from computers, teachers, peers, and community.

Resources
Article – The Educator’s Guide to Student Data Privacy
https://www.connectsafely.org/eduprivacy/

This guide is meant to help teachers utilize technology in the classroom while protecting their students’ privacy.


Tool – UDL for Learning Guidelines + Computer Science/Computational Thinking
https://ctrl.education.ufl.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2020/05/Copy-of-UDL-and-CS_CT-remix.pdf

UDL is a framework for designing curriculum to be broadly accessible to ALL students. Learn more about utilizing the UDL framework in computer science education.


Standards – CSTA Standards for Computer Science Teachers
https://www.csteachers.org/page/standards-for-cs-teachers

These standards are designed to provide clear guidance on effective and equitable computer science instruction in support of rigorous computer science education for all K–12 students.


Article – Assessing Students' Computational Thinking Application in Core Subject Areas
https://csforall.medium.com/assessing-students-computational-thinking-application-in-core-subject-areas-b6799b117493

This article discusses how computational thinking skills were integrated and assessed in New York City elementary schools.


Article – Assessment Considerations: A Simple Heuristic
https://jaredoleary.com/publications/assessment-considerations-a-simple-heuristic

This article discusses different types of assessments and what to consider when choosing an assessment.


Article – Differentiation: How Do I Use Data to Adjust Instruction for Groups and Individual Students?
https://practices.learningaccelerator.org/problem-of-practice/data-differentiation-how-do-i-use-data-to-inform-instruction-for-groups-and-individual-students

Step-by-step guide showing teachers how they can change their lessons or classroom based on data.


Micro-Credential Map By Grade Band
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1E6pQDbFCQ42O1FUzQIakJS9CRKraHiORCXdUXmdcBCw/copy#gid=1114401374

The computer science standards are written in grade bands (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12). The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standard to be met by the end of each grade band. In grades 9-12, there are level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. Level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science. The teacher or earner can choose which grade band and standard to focus their lesson on.


03. DESIGN/DEVELOP
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Vboh_Hu3kK53uYJZCcQlDLCB6NTRwVPxvCyszP4zhUY/copy

Use this resource for the design/develop step of the ADDIE model.


04. EVALUATE – Worksheet
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1eevTS3Ay1X9nbtSvWvUjX7yj6DwaiZYEAAsyuNGlEb4/copy

Evaluate how effective your activities were at promoting student learning of the standards. Use specific examples from the artifacts you submitted in Implement and suggest any changes in practice or approach that you might make in the future based on your experience with this micro-credential.


Standards – Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards
https://edu.wyoming.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/2020-CS-WYCPS-with-all-PLDs-effective-04.07.21.pdf

Performance Level Descriptors (PLDs) describe the performance expectations of students for each of the four (4) performance level categories: advanced, proficient, basic, and below basic. These are a description of what students within each performance level are expected to know and be able to do. All PLDs are found in this document.


Lesson Plan – Lesson 5: Representing Numbers
https://curriculum.code.org/csd-20/unit5/5/

This is a sample lesson using the binary system to represent integers. Teachers could teach this lesson or get ideas from it to put in their own lesson.


Video – Representing Data with Images and Sound: Bringing Data to Life
https://www.futurelearn.com/info/step-course/representing-data-with-images-and-sound-bringing-data-to-life

Collection of videos teachers could watch or share with their class on the representation/translation of data


Lesson Plan – Computers and Binary
https://www.digitaltechnologieshub.edu.au/teachers/scope-and-sequence/7-8/data-representations/computers-and-binary

A collection of four units with multiple resources on teaching representing and translating data.


Lesson Plan – Data Driven Innovation
https://www.digitaltechnologieshub.edu.au/teachers/scope-and-sequence/9-10/collect-manage-and-analyse-data/data-driven-innovation

This is a collection of lessons focusing on data that is used to inform society, business, and governments. Students are asked to consider the tradeoffs of public data and storage.


Lesson Plan – Common Storage Devices
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1i3_EZsVoehWurAWJN06ttGxLc8ghpLfE/view?usp=sharing

This slideshow includes three lessons on storage devices.


Lesson Plan – Data Representation: Millions of Colors
http://tryengineering.org/wp-content/uploads/Data-Representation-Color-HS.pdf

This is a lesson plan focusing on how computers use bits of information to represent color. Students will learn how additive color is represented as binary and hexadecimal numbers.


Article – Importance of feedback in assessment
https://www.futurelearn.com/info/courses/educational-design/0/steps/26436

This article discusses the importance of feedback in assessment as well as the criteria to make feedback useful.


Article – Teaching Students to Give Peer Feedback
https://www.edutopia.org/article/teaching-students-give-peer-feedback

This article describes how teachers can foster peer to peer feedback in their classroom.


Article – Computer Basics: 10 Examples of Storage Devices for Digital Data
https://turbofuture.com/computers/Examples-of-Data-Storage-Devices

Basic resource for getting to know storage devices used with computers it includes ways that digital data can be lost as well.


01. PROFICIENCY SCALE – Data & Analysis – Storage
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hTvgSzgt7AXoBeHjGBSlpOsR-Ve29FPxf_sHZynagrM/copy

This scale is provided as a resource for learners to view micro-credential criterion and the performance descriptor levels for demonstration of mastery.


02. ANALYZE – Data & Analysis – Storage
https://docs.google.com/document/d/18eQja7Q2smQG2dR44Scl9dCF9cxyYykRfarlPLGF4vU/copy

Analyze the student and teacher standards aligned with the Data & Analysis – Storage micro-credential. Aligned standards and instructions for selecting a focus standard are outlined below the task description. There are two parts to this task.


Video – Representing Numbers and Letters with Binary
https://youtu.be/1GSjbWt0c9M

This video looks at how computers use a stream of 1s and 0s to represent all of our data - from our text messages and photos to music and webpages. It focuses on how these binary values are used to represent numbers and letters, and discuss how our need to perform operations on larger and more complex values brought us from our 8-bit video games to beautiful Instagram photos, and from unreadable garbled text in our emails to a universal language encoding scheme.


Video – How Computers Work: Binary & Data
https://youtu.be/USCBCmwMCDA

In this video from Code.org Computer scientists teach how computers represent numbers, words, images, and sound with binary.


Video – Memory & Storage
https://youtu.be/TQCr9RV7twk

This video traces the history of storage technologies from punch cards, delay line memory, core memory, magnetic tape, and magnetic drums, to floppy disks, hard disk drives, CDs, and solid state drives. Initially, volatile memory, like RAM was much faster than these non-volatile storage memories, but that distinction is becoming less and less true today.


Article – "Unwrapping" the Standards: A Simple Way to Deconstruct Learning Outcomes
https://corwin-connect.com/2015/03/unwrapping-the-standards-a-simple-way-to-deconstruct-learning-outcomes/

“Unwrapping” is a simple method that all teachers in all grade levels can use to deconstruct the wording of any standard in order to know its meaning inside and out.


Sample Response – Completed Devices Micro-Credential
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ESoWRRdNZRjruO2j-1eq4CUU3YoWLlh1/view?usp=sharing

This resource includes a sample response for analyze, design/develop, implement, and analyze as well as a sample reflection prompt response for the devices micro-credential.


Video Tutorial: Platform Navigation Tutorias
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hUZSMULBOzj-_CmIo2zuiZG2QziB40D_qBOXqAc5P5k/edit?usp=sharing

This is a list of videos that support navigation of the Midas platform. Including how to submit micro-credentials for review.


Video Tutorial: Unpacking Wyoming Computer Science Standards
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1fy_LGu8NWKlbhJWlGblE01V520kGsPJ6/view?usp=sharing

This video helps for unpacking the Wyoming Computer Science standards as part of the micro-credential.


Video Tutorial: Best Practice in Google Drive Organization
https://drive.google.com/file/d/15WPbS__MRNpSGpEyTWWocd362qK6piZX/view?usp=sharing

This video provides best practices in Google Drive organization for the micro-credentials.


Video Tutorial: Completing the CSTA CS Teacher Standard Analyze Task
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1STn9CNmjxjjosyglv_-VbQxUOevp8Ax7/view?usp=sharing

This video gives pointers on completing the CSTA CS teacher standard analyze task for the micro-credential.


Storage Micro-credential Checklist
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1BpAOGD_nogSg5gLw4HX-HTFNDZBXjZ9GoSpkxT28y_4/copy

This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential.

Earners
Jennifer Anderson

Jennifer Anderson
Kiesa Geyer

Kiesa Geyer
Abby Hurley

Abby Hurley
Debbie Jacobson

Debbie Jacobson
Jared Lundholm

Jared Lundholm
Carl Shuptrine

Carl Shuptrine
Walt Smith

Walt Smith

Wyoming Department of Education

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Cheyenne, WY 82002

Phone: (307) 777-7675 

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