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Inferences & Models - Secondary
Material Image
Microcredential ID : 36
Stack
Data & Analysis - Secondary
Credits
0.5 PTSB Recertification Credit

Description

This micro-credential represents the knowledge of how to teach inferences and models in a secondary classroom to support students in learning about the use of data to make simple predictions. As students progress, they learn how models and simulations can be used to examine theories and understand systems and how predictions and inferences are affected by complex and larger data sets. Please locate "01. PROFICIENCY SCALE – Data & Analysis – Inference & Models" under resources to view specific Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers included in this micro-credential.

Standards
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4a - Analyze CS curricula. Analyze CS curricula for implementation in their classrooms in terms of CS standards alignment, accuracy, completeness of content, cultural relevance, and accessibility.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4b - Develop standards-aligned learning experiences. Design and adapt learning experiences that align to comprehensive K-12 CS standards.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4g - Inform instruction through assessment. Develop multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. Use resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Classroom Practice
    5b - Cultivate a positive classroom climate. Cultivate a positive classroom climate that values and amplifies varied perspectives, abilities, approaches, and solutions.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Inference & Models
    2.DA.IM.01 - With guidance, interpret data and present it in a chart or graph (visualization) in order to make a prediction, with or without a computing device.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Inference & Models
    5.DA.IM.01 - Use data to highlight or propose relationships, predict outcomes, or communicate an idea.
How To Earn This Microcredential

To earn this micro-credential you will process through the ADDIE learning model producing evidence that demonstrates your knowledge of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers. Through the ADDIE learning model you will analyze standards, design/develop and implement a lesson, collect student work artifacts, and evaluate your professional practices.

Fees
There will be no fee assessed for reviewing this microcredential.
Clarifications

The inferences & models micro-credential is one of three micro-credentials that make up the data & analysis stack. The data & analysis stack is one of six micro-credential stacks which when completed will lead to a Computer Science Teacher Master Distinction.

Important Terms
Complete knowledge:

All of the skills listed in the proficient level of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards (see the resources) for the chosen standard.

K–14:

Refers to computer science standards ranging from kindergarten into postsecondary education.

Scope and sequence:

Scope refers to the topics and areas of development within a curriculum, and sequence is the order in which those skills are taught.

Grade band:

The computer science standards are written in grade bands (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12). The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standard to be met by the end of the grade band. In grades 9–12, there are level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. Level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science.

Chosen grade band:

The teacher or earner can choose which secondary grade band and standard to focus their lesson around.

Supporting computer science standard:

There is a difference between supporting standards and performance standards. All students are expected to be instructed on supporting computer science standards, taught within the context of the performance standards. Supporting standards do not need to be assessed through the district assessment system. If no supporting standards are listed on the "Micro-credential Map by Grade Band" in the resources, this area becomes N/A.

Performance standards:

The Wyoming Content and Performance Standards serve several purposes. They articulate a set of expectations for what students should know and be able to do, enabling them to be prepared for college and career success; to live a life that contributes to the global community. These expectations are communicated to students, parents, educators, and all other Wyoming stakeholders, and provide a common understanding among educators as to what students should learn at particular grades. Standards do not dictate methodology, instructional materials used, or how the material is delivered. (See Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards in the resources.)

Analog data:

The defining characteristic of data that is represented in a continuous, physical way. Whereas digital data is a set of individual symbols, analog data is stored in physical media, such as the surface grooves on a vinyl record, the magnetic tape of a VCR cassette, or other non digital media.

App:

A type of application software designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Also known as a mobile application.

Classroom climate:

The prevailing mood, attitudes, standards, and tone that students and teachers feel when they are in the classroom.

Computational artifact :

Anything created by a human using a computational thinking process and a computing device. A computational artifact can be, but is not limited to, a program, image, audio, video, presentation, or web page file.

Computational thinking:

The thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solutions in such a way that a computer (human or machine) can effectively carry them out.

Computer science:

The study of computing principles, design, and applications (hardware and software); the creation, access, and use of information through algorithms and problem-solving; and the impact of computing on society.

Data:

Information that is collected and used for reference or analysis. Data can be digital or nondigital and can be in many forms, including numbers, text, show of hands, images, sounds, or video.

Data structure:

A particular way to store and organize data within a computer program to suit a specific purpose so that it can be accessed a nd worked with in appropriate ways.

Data type:

A classification of data that is distinguished by its attributes and the types of operations that can be performed on it. Some common data types are integer, string, Boolean (true or false), and floating-point.

Encoding:

The process of converting data from one form to another.

Inference:

A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.

Integrity :

The overall completeness, accuracy, and consistency of data.

Model:

A representation of some part of a problem or a system. [MDESE, 2016] Note: This definition differs from that used in science.

Reliability :

Consistently produces the same results, preferably meeting or exceeding its requirements.

Unconscious bias:

Prejudice or unsupported judgments in favor of or against one thing, person, or group as compared to another, in a way that is usually considered unfair.

Stereotype threat:

Being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's social group

Universal design for learning (UDL):

A framework for designing curriculum to be broadly accessible to all students. (See UDL for Learning Guidelines + Computer Science/Computational Thinking in the resources)

Modalities of assessment:

Modalities of assessment include written assessment, oral assessment, performance tasks, or visual representations.

Forms of assessment:

These include formative, summative, or student self-assessment.

Background Scenario / How This Will Help You

This micro-credential collection provides earners with the opportunity to document their knowledge and skills in teaching computer science to students in grades 6–12. The content provides resources to support understanding.

Earners are encouraged to participate in additional learning opportunities if more extensive learning is needed. Additional learning opportunities may include free online resources, postsecondary courses, and local courses.

The micro-credential structure offers earners flexible pathways and timelines. Earners can complete the micro-credentials in any order that aligns with their classroom timelines and availability. Micro-credentials offer earners the opportunity to submit evidence and receive evaluator feedback. Earners are encouraged to resubmit evidence until mastery is earned. Each resubmission will be reviewed and updated feedback will be provided.

Evidence Options
Candidates are required to submit multiple pieces of evidence.
Category: Analyze

Analyze: Standards:

Please complete "02. ANALYZE – Impacts of Computing – Safety, Law & Ethics" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload it in the evidence section as a PDF. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/3yjXbyz.

Category: Design/Develop

Lesson Plan:

Find "03. DESIGN/DEVELOP" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you are finished with this task, upload your lesson plan in the evidence section as a PDF. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/2Urhzik.

Category: Implement

Implementation:

Implement the set of activities or lesson plan you designed. Submit evidence of student learning for your focus standard. Include evidence of students that have met the standard and students that have not met the standard. Examples include videos of students working, completed student worksheets, etc. Annotate each piece of evidence to demonstrate how you facilitated student achievement of the standard.

Category: Evaluate

Journal:

Find "04. EVALUATE – Worksheet" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/3xMingf.


Review Criteria

Evidence submissions and reflections will be reviewed for alignment with the assignment guidelines and this proficiency scale, found here: https://bit.ly/2UFtA3N. This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential: https://bit.ly/3EIrYIl.

Reflection Prompts

Please provide a self-assessment, a score from 1–4, on each component of the proficiency scale found here: https://bit.ly/2UFtA3N. Provide a few sentences stating where the pieces of evidence that support the scores for each component are located.

If you are resubmitting, please indicate what changes were made in the documents (e.g., highlight, text color) and include "Resubmission #" with the resubmission number in the file title when you upload.


Review Criteria

Proficiency scale: https://bit.ly/2UFtA3N. Checklist: https://bit.ly/3EIrYIl.

Content knowledge – CSTA 4a The teacher demonstrates accurate and complete knowledge of the content and skills of the standard being taught.

Inform instruction through assessment – CSTA 4g The teacher develops multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. The teacher uses resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.

Supporting standards The teacher identifies and explains the connection of supporting computer science standards to the standard being taught in their lesson.

Vertical alignment – CSTA 4b The teacher explains the relationship of the standard in the scope and sequence of computer science standards directly above and below chosen grade band.

Cultivate a Positive Classroom Climate – CSTA 5b The teacher cultivates a positive classroom climate that values and amplifies varied perspectives, abilities, approaches, and solutions and that promotes student self-identity and inclusivity.

Resources
Tool – UDL for Learning Guidelines + Computer Science/Computational Thinking
https://ctrl.education.ufl.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2020/05/Copy-of-UDL-and-CS_CT-remix.pdf

UDL is a framework for designing curriculum to be broadly accessible to ALL students. Learn more about utilizing the UDL framework in computer science education.


Standards – CSTA Standards for Computer Science Teachers
https://www.csteachers.org/page/standards-for-cs-teachers

These standards are designed to provide clear guidance on effective and equitable computer science instruction in support of rigorous computer science education for all K–12 students.


Article – Assessing Students' Computational Thinking Application in Core Subject Areas
https://csforall.medium.com/assessing-students-computational-thinking-application-in-core-subject-areas-b6799b117493

This article discusses how computational thinking skills were integrated and assessed in New York City elementary schools.


Article – Assessment Considerations: A Simple Heuristic
https://jaredoleary.com/publications/assessment-considerations-a-simple-heuristic

This article discusses different types of assessments and what to consider when choosing an assessment.


Article – Differentiation: How Do I Use Data to Adjust Instruction for Groups and Individual Students?
https://practices.learningaccelerator.org/problem-of-practice/data-differentiation-how-do-i-use-data-to-inform-instruction-for-groups-and-individual-students

Step-by-step guide showing teachers how they can change their lessons or classroom based on data.


Micro-Credential Map By Grade Band
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1E6pQDbFCQ42O1FUzQIakJS9CRKraHiORCXdUXmdcBCw/copy#gid=1114401374

The computer science standards are written in grade bands (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12). The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standard to be met by the end of each grade band. In grades 9-12, there are level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. Level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science. The teacher or earner can choose which grade band and standard to focus their lesson on.


03. DESIGN/DEVELOP
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Vboh_Hu3kK53uYJZCcQlDLCB6NTRwVPxvCyszP4zhUY/copy

Use this resource for the design/develop step of the ADDIE model.


04. EVALUATE – Worksheet
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1eevTS3Ay1X9nbtSvWvUjX7yj6DwaiZYEAAsyuNGlEb4/copy

Evaluate how effective your activities were at promoting student learning of the standards. Use specific examples from the artifacts you submitted in Implement and suggest any changes in practice or approach that you might make in the future based on your experience with this micro-credential.


Standards – Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards
https://edu.wyoming.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/2020-CS-WYCPS-with-all-PLDs-effective-04.07.21.pdf

Performance Level Descriptors (PLDs) describe the performance expectations of students for each of the four (4) performance level categories: advanced, proficient, basic, and below basic. These are a description of what students within each performance level are expected to know and be able to do. All PLDs are found in this document.


Article – Key Factors in Creating a Positive Classroom Climate
https://www.cfchildren.org/blog/2012/08/key-factors-in-creating-a-positive-classroom-climate/

This article defines positive classroom climate and gives recommendations on how to create one in your classroom.


Article – Three Ways to Foster a Positive Classroom Climate
https://www.cfchildren.org/blog/2017/11/foster-positive-classroom-climate/

This article gives three simple steps teachers can take to create a positive classroom climate.


Lesson Plan – Data Talks
https://www.youcubed.org/resource/data-talks/

Data talks are short 5–10 minute classroom discussions to help students develop data literacy. This pedagogical strategy is similar in structure to a number talk, but instead of numbers students are shown a data visual and asked what interests them.


Article – Teaching Students to Value Different Perspectives
https://www.castlelearning.com/news/news-teaching-students-to-value-different-perspectives/

Part of a positive classroom climate is helping students feel valued. This article gives strategies to help teachers teach their students to value the differing opinions of their peers.


Lesson Plan – Data Science Lessons
https://www.youcubed.org/data-science-lessons/

This webpage provides teachers with engaging and informative lesson plans to introduce them to data science including “Data is everywhere,” “Working with data analysis tools,” “measures of center spread,” “Understanding variability,” and “A community data collection project.” We highly recommend adding these short activities as a part of data analysis micro-credential.


Lesson Plan – Computational Modeling Lesson Plan: Marvelous Models
https://educators.brainpop.com/lesson-plan/computational-modeling-lesson-plan-marvelous-models/

This lesson plan features a game called Marvelous Models, developed by Field Day Lab. In this game, students apply their knowledge of computational modeling by analyzing data and building systems models.


Article – Engaging in Computational Thinking Through System Modeling
https://concord.org/newsletter/2019-fall/engaging-in-computational-thinking-through-system-modeling/

This resource reviews models of interrelated components, involving chains of relationships and feedback in a system. It focuses on the integration of computational thinking in the system modeling process.


Tool – Sage Modeler
https://sagemodeler.concord.org/

Free, web based, and open source software to engage students in system thinking through designing, building and revising models. Teachers can browse example models, and explore their curricular units.


Video – The Concord Consortium
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCgY6_xM-sNBJUQMWh_p1jwQ/videos

Collection of videos from The Concord Consortium covering various topics on data and modeling.


Tool – Common Online Data Analysis Platform (CODAP)
https://codap.concord.org/

CODAP is free educational software for data analysis. This web-based data science tool is designed as a platform for developers and as an application for students in grades 6–14. It includes classroom activities and downloadable resources.


Video – Data Culture Project
https://www.databasic.io/en/culture/

DataBasic is a suite of easy-to-use web tools for beginners that introduce concepts of working with data. These simple tools make it easy to work with data in fun ways, so you can learn how to find great stories to tell. This project includes a hands-on learning program to kickstart your data culture.


Lesson Plan – Code.org Unit 9 – Data
https://curriculum.code.org/csp-20/unit9/

This Code.org unit leads an exploration of data on a wide variety of topics. Students use App Lab to make use of a data visualizer.


Article – Teaching with Data Simulations
https://serc.carleton.edu/sp/library/datasim/index.html

This resource explains the pedagogy of teaching with data simulations. It also includes links to classroom examples of simulation activities.


01. PROFICIENCY SCALE – Data & Analysis – Inferences & Models
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1eTY2w5p48I_Kkvhr23bnYYmBe-LkasgXwxff1BEu3o4/copy

This scale is provided as a resource for learners to view micro-credential criterion and the performance descriptor levels for demonstration of mastery.


02. ANALYZE – Data & Analysis – Inferences & Models
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1qpnSM0PGoZr9HRPGXM6wUw_eDL2mTZsEygtp2OEi784/copy

Analyze the student and teacher standards aligned with the Data & Analysis – Inferences & Models micro-credential. Aligned standards and instructions for selecting a focus standard are outlined below the task description. There are two parts to this task.


Article – "Unwrapping" the Standards: A Simple Way to Deconstruct Learning Outcomes
https://corwin-connect.com/2015/03/unwrapping-the-standards-a-simple-way-to-deconstruct-learning-outcomes/

“Unwrapping” is a simple method that all teachers in all grade levels can use to deconstruct the wording of any standard in order to know its meaning inside and out.


Sample Response – Completed Devices Micro-Credential
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ESoWRRdNZRjruO2j-1eq4CUU3YoWLlh1/view?usp=sharing

This resource includes a sample response for analyze, design/develop, implement, and analyze as well as a sample reflection prompt response for the devices micro-credential.


Video Tutorial: Platform Navigation Tutorias
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hUZSMULBOzj-_CmIo2zuiZG2QziB40D_qBOXqAc5P5k/edit?usp=sharing

This is a list of videos that support navigation of the Midas platform. Including how to submit micro-credentials for review.


Video Tutorial: Unpacking Wyoming Computer Science Standards
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1fy_LGu8NWKlbhJWlGblE01V520kGsPJ6/view?usp=sharing

This video helps for unpacking the Wyoming Computer Science standards as part of the micro-credential.


Video Tutorial: Best Practice in Google Drive Organization
https://drive.google.com/file/d/15WPbS__MRNpSGpEyTWWocd362qK6piZX/view?usp=sharing

This video provides best practices in Google Drive organization for the micro-credentials.


Video Tutorial: Completing the CSTA CS Teacher Standard Analyze Task
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1STn9CNmjxjjosyglv_-VbQxUOevp8Ax7/view?usp=sharing

This video gives pointers on completing the CSTA CS teacher standard analyze task for the micro-credential.


Inferences & Models Micro-credential Checklist
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1yxEft_YpL14Ty851J8u5nEHeRBZKdCko1Xj0_HW2kkw/copy

This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential.

Earners
Jennifer Anderson

Jennifer Anderson
Jill Felbeck-Jones

Jill Felbeck-Jones
Kiesa Geyer

Kiesa Geyer
Abby Hurley

Abby Hurley
Debbie Jacobson

Debbie Jacobson
Walt Smith

Walt Smith

Wyoming Department of Education

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Cheyenne, WY 82002

Phone: (307) 777-7675 

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