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Control - Secondary
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Microcredential ID : 47
Stack
Algorithms and Programming - Secondary
Credits
0.5 PTSB Recertification Credit

Description

This micro-credential represents the knowledge of how to teach the use of control in a secondary classroom to support student learning of sequential execution and simple control structures in the early grades. As students progress, they expand their understanding to combinations of structures that support complex execution. They learn that control structures specify the order in which instructions are executed within an algorithm or program. Please locate "01. PROFICIENCY SCALE – Algorithms & Programming – Control" under resources to view specific Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers included in this micro-credential.

Standards
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4a - Analyze CS curricula. Analyze CS curricula for implementation in their classrooms in terms of CS standards alignment, accuracy, completeness of content, cultural relevance, and accessibility.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4b - Develop standards-aligned learning experiences. Design and adapt learning experiences that align to comprehensive K-12 CS standards.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4f - Plan instruction to foster student understanding. Plan activities that use evidence-based, CS-specific teaching strategies to develop students’ conceptual understanding and proactively address student misconceptions in CS.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4g - Inform instruction through assessment. Develop multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. Use resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Variables
    8.AP.V.01 - Using grade appropriate content and complexity, create clearly named variables that represent different data types and perform operations on their values.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Variables
    L1.AP.V.01 - Use lists to simplify solutions, generalizing computational problems instead of repeatedly using simple variables.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Variables
    L2.AP.V.01 - Compare and contrast simple data structures and their uses (e.g., lists, stacks, queues).
How To Earn This Microcredential

To earn this micro-credential you will process through the ADDIE learning model producing evidence that demonstrates your knowledge of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers. Through the ADDIE learning model you will analyze standards, design/develop and implement a lesson, collect student work artifacts, and evaluate your professional practices.

Fees
There will be no fee assessed for reviewing this microcredential.
Clarifications

The control micro-credential is one of two micro-credentials that make up the algorithms & programming stack. The algorithms & programming stack is one of six micro-credential stacks which when completed will lead to a Computer Science Teacher Master Distinction.

Important Terms
Complete knowledge:

All of the skills listed in the proficient level of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards (see the resources) for a chosen standard.

Universal design for learning (UDL):

A framework for designing curriculum to be broadly accessible to all students. (See UDL for Learning Guidelines + Computer Science/Computational Thinking in the resources)

K–14:

Refers to computer science standards ranging from kindergarten into postsecondary education.

Scope and sequence:

Scope refers to the topics and areas of development within a curriculum, and sequence is the order in which those skills are taught.

Grade band:

The computer science standards are written in grade bands (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12). The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standards to be met by the end of the grade band. In grades 9–12, there are level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. Level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science.

Chosen grade band:

The teacher or earner can choose which secondary grade band and standard to focus their lesson on.

Supporting computer science standard:

There is a difference between supporting standards and performance standards. All students are expected to be instructed on supporting computer science standards, taught within the context of the performance standards. Supporting standards do not need to be assessed through the district assessment system. If no supporting standards are listed on the "Micro-credential Map by Grade Band" (see the resources), this area becomes N/A.

Performance standards:

The Wyoming Content and Performance Standards serve several purposes. They articulate a set of expectations for what students should know and be able to do, enabling them to be prepared for college and career success; to live a life that contributes to the global community. These expectations are communicated to students, parents, educators, and all other Wyoming stakeholders, and provide a common understanding among educators as to what students should learn at particular grades. Standards do not dictate methodology, instructional materials used, or how the material is delivered. (See Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards in the resources.)

Algorithm:

A step-by-step process to complete a task.

App:

A type of application software designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Also known as a mobile application.

Computational artifact:

Anything created by a human using a computational thinking process and a computing device. A computational artifact can be, but is not limited to, a program, image, audio, video, presentation, or web page file.

Computer science:

The study of computing principles, design, and applications (hardware and software); the creation, access, and use of information through algorithms and problem-solving; and the impact of computing on society.

Control:

In programming, it is the use of elements of programming code to direct which actions take place and the order in which they take place.

Control structures:

A programming (code) structure that implements control. Conditionals and loops are examples of control structures.

Data structure:

A particular way to store and organize data within a computer program to suit a specific purpose so that it can be accessed and worked with in appropriate ways.

Events:

Any identifiable occurrence that has significance for system hardware or software. User-generated events include keystrokes and mouse clicks; system-generated events include program loading and errors.

Prototype:

An early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

Recursion:

Recursion is the process of defining a problem (or the solution to a problem) in terms of (a simpler version of) itself.

Variable:

A symbolic name that is used to keep track of a value that can change while a program is running. Variables are not just used for numbers; they can also hold text, including whole sentences (strings) or logical values (true or false). A variable has a data type and is associated with data storage location; its value is normally changed during the course of program execution.

Conditionals:

A feature of a programming language that perfroms different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer -specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. (A condition could refer to a conditional statement, conditional expression, or conditional construct.)

Modalities of assessment:

Modalities of assessment include written assessment, oral assessment, performance tasks, or visual representations.

Forms of assessment:

These include formative, summative, or student self-assessment.

Background Scenario / How This Will Help You

This micro-credential collection provides earners with the opportunity to document their knowledge and skills in teaching computer science to students in grades 6–12. The content provides resources to support understanding.

Earners are encouraged to participate in additional learning opportunities if more extensive learning is needed. Additional learning opportunities may include free online resources, postsecondary courses, and local courses.

The micro-credential structure offers earners flexible pathways and timelines. Earners can complete the micro-credentials in any order that aligns with their classroom timelines and availability. Micro-credentials offer earners the opportunity to submit evidence and receive evaluator feedback. Earners are encouraged to resubmit evidence until mastery is earned. Each resubmission will be reviewed, and updated feedback will be provided.

Evidence Options
Candidates are required to submit multiple pieces of evidence.
Category: Analyze

Analyze: Standards:

Complete "02. ANALYZE – Algorithms & Programming – Control" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload it in the evidence section as a PDF. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/3fCmYe6.

Category: Design/Develop

Lesson Plan:

Find "03. DESIGN/DEVELOP" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you are finished with this task, upload your lesson plan in the evidence section as a PDF. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/2Urhzik.

Category: Implement

Implementation:

Implement the set of activities or lesson plan you designed. Submit evidence of student learning for your focus standard. Include evidence of students that have met the standard and students that have not met the standard. Examples include videos of students working, completed student worksheets, etc. Annotate each piece of evidence to demonstrate how you facilitated student achievement of the standard.

Category: Evaluate

Journal:

Find "04. EVALUATE – Worksheet" in the resources section below. All instructions are included in the worksheet. The resource can be found by following this link: https://bit.ly/3xMingf.


Review Criteria

Evidence submissions and reflections will be reviewed for alignment with the assignment guidelines and this proficiency scale, found here: https://bit.ly/37nhMGC. This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential: https://bit.ly/3k3p2hr.

Reflection Prompts

Please provide a self-assessment, a score from 1–4, on each component of the proficiency scale found here: https://bit.ly/37nhMGC. Provide a few sentences stating where the pieces of evidence that support the scores for each component are located.

If you are resubmitting, please indicate what changes were made in the documents (e.g., highlight, text color) and include "Resubmission #" with the resubmission number in the file title when you upload.


Review Criteria

Proficiency scale: https://bit.ly/37nhMGC. Checklist: https://bit.ly/3k3p2hr.

Content knowledge – CSTA 4a The teacher demonstrates accurate and complete knowledge of the content and skills of the standard being taught.

Inform instruction through assessment – CSTA 4g The teacher develops multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. The teacher uses resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.

Supporting standards The teacher identifies and explains the connection of supporting computer science standards to the standard being taught in their lesson.

Vertical alignment – CSTA 4b The teacher explains the relationship of the standard in the scope and sequence of computer science standards directly above and below chosen grade band.

Plan projects that have personal meaning to students – CSTA 4e The teacher plans opportunities for students to create and share open-ended and personally meaningful projects

.Use inquiry to facilitate student learning – CSTA 5a The teacher uses inquiry-based learning to enhance student understanding of computer science content.

Resources
Tool – UDL for Learning Guidelines + Computer Science/Computational Thinking
https://ctrl.education.ufl.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2020/05/Copy-of-UDL-and-CS_CT-remix.pdf

UDL is a framework for designing curriculum to be broadly accessible to ALL students. Learn more about utilizing the UDL framework in computer science education.


Webpage – CSTA Wyoming
https://web.membernova.com/400361/page/about-us

CSTA Wyoming's website so teachers can join.


Standards – CSTA Standards for Computer Science Teachers
https://www.csteachers.org/page/standards-for-cs-teachers

These standards are designed to provide clear guidance on effective and equitable computer science instruction in support of rigorous computer science education for all K–12 students.


Micro-Credential Map By Grade Band
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1E6pQDbFCQ42O1FUzQIakJS9CRKraHiORCXdUXmdcBCw/copy#gid=1114401374

The computer science standards are written in grade bands (K–2, 3–5, 6–8, and 9–12). The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standard to be met by the end of each grade band. In grades 9-12, there are level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. Level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science. The teacher or earner can choose which grade band and standard to focus their lesson on.


03. DESIGN/DEVELOP
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Vboh_Hu3kK53uYJZCcQlDLCB6NTRwVPxvCyszP4zhUY/copy

Use this resource for the design/develop step of the ADDIE model.


04. EVALUATE – Worksheet
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1eevTS3Ay1X9nbtSvWvUjX7yj6DwaiZYEAAsyuNGlEb4/copy

Evaluate how effective your activities were at promoting student learning of the standards. Use specific examples from the artifacts you submitted in Implement and suggest any changes in practice or approach that you might make in the future based on your experience with this micro-credential.


Standards – Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards
https://edu.wyoming.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/2020-CS-WYCPS-with-all-PLDs-effective-04.07.21.pdf

Performance Level Descriptors (PLDs) describe the performance expectations of students for each of the four (4) performance level categories: advanced, proficient, basic, and below basic. These are a description of what students within each performance level are expected to know and be able to do. All PLDs are found in this document.


Article – "Unwrapping" the Standards: A Simple Way to Deconstruct Learning Outcomes
https://corwin-connect.com/2015/03/unwrapping-the-standards-a-simple-way-to-deconstruct-learning-outcomes/

“Unwrapping” is a simple method that all teachers in all grade levels can use to deconstruct the wording of any standard in order to know its meaning inside and out.


Sample Response – Completed Devices Micro-Credential
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ESoWRRdNZRjruO2j-1eq4CUU3YoWLlh1/view?usp=sharing

This resource includes a sample response for analyze, design/develop, implement, and analyze as well as a sample reflection prompt response for the devices micro-credential.


01. PROFICIENCY SCALE – Algorithms & Programm – Control
https://docs.google.com/document/d/12GtocfnpPmM7b19bqDsAvJ4WLwND63sljwASYXtmix4/copy

This scale is provided as a resource for learners to view micro-credential criterion and the performance descriptor levels for demonstration of mastery.


02. ANALYZE – Algorithms & Programming – Control
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EPdh8El7nij8mXVGkK8WG87JBNCJ4ydV-PYyrEJjF48/copy

Analyze the student and teacher standards aligned with the Algorithms & Programming – Control micro-credential. Aligned standards and instructions for selecting a focus standard are outlined below the task description. There are two parts to this task.


Article – The Power of Iterative Design and Process
https://www.smartsheet.com/iterative-process-guide

This article defines and gives examples of the iterative process and how it is used in computer science.


Lesson Plan – Nested Loops
https://curriculum.code.org/csf-1718/coursed/4/

In this online activity, students will have the opportunity to push their understanding of loops to a whole new level. Playing with the Bee and Plants vs Zombies, students will learn how to program a loop to be inside of another loop. They will also be encouraged to figure out how little changes in either loop will affect their program when they click Run.


Lesson Plan – Compound Conditionals in Soccer
https://www.coursera.org/lecture/block-programming-k12-educators-nested-if-statement-compound-conditionals/compound-conditionals-in-soccer-tB5JQ

Learn how to create compound conditionals with and and or. Do an unplugged activity to see compound conditional apply in a soccer game.


Article – Teach Kids Computer Science Through Design and Inquiry
https://www.iste.org/explore/Computer-Science/Teach-kids-computer-science-through-design-and-inquiry

This article discusses how computer science is best integrated across content areas by teaching design and inquiry practices in tandem with computer science.


Lesson Plan – Websites for Expression
https://curriculum.code.org/csd-19/unit2/2/

In this lesson students investigate ways to use websites as a means of personal expression and develop a list of topics and interests that they would want to include on a personal website. To begin the lesson students brainstorm different ways that people express and share their interests and ideas. Students then look at a few exemplar websites made by students from a previous CS Discoveries course to identify ways they are expressing their ideas. Finally students brainstorm and share a list of topics and interests they might want to include on a personal website which they can reference for ideas as they progress through the unit.


Article – Recursion is Not Hard: A Step-by-Step Walkthrough of This Useful Programming Technique
https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/recursion-is-not-hard-858a48830d83/

In this resource function invocation, recursion, and factorials are broken down with examples using Javascript.


Article – Recursion
https://www.cs.utah.edu/~germain/PPS/Topics/recursion.html

This article defines recursion and explains parts of a recursive algorithm with coded examples.


Article – Engagement Practices
https://www.engage-csedu.org/engagement/make-it-matter

These Engagement Practices are evidence-based teaching practices that faculty can use to help broaden participation in computing.


Video – Iterative Design
https://youtu.be/GyuE47Hv60k

This video introduces students/teachers to the basics of iterative design in both a nonprogramming and programming scenario.


Video Tutorial: Platform Navigation Tutorias
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hUZSMULBOzj-_CmIo2zuiZG2QziB40D_qBOXqAc5P5k/edit?usp=sharing

This is a list of videos that support navigation of the Midas platform. Including how to submit micro-credentials for review.


Video Tutorial: Unpacking Wyoming Computer Science Standards
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1fy_LGu8NWKlbhJWlGblE01V520kGsPJ6/view?usp=sharing

This video helps for unpacking the Wyoming Computer Science standards as part of the micro-credential.


Video Tutorial: Best Practice in Google Drive Organization
https://drive.google.com/file/d/15WPbS__MRNpSGpEyTWWocd362qK6piZX/view?usp=sharing

This video provides best practices in Google Drive organization for the micro-credentials.


Video Tutorial: Completing the CSTA CS Teacher Standard Analyze Task
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1STn9CNmjxjjosyglv_-VbQxUOevp8Ax7/view?usp=sharing

This video gives pointers on completing the CSTA CS teacher standard analyze task for the micro-credential.


Control Micro-credential Checklist
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1MfsVi_ztaCVRWqlj4mYDrpyLrLynVMsC6dmFZWksOJg/copy

This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential.

Earners
Jennifer Anderson

Jennifer Anderson
Kiesa Geyer

Kiesa Geyer
Abby Hurley

Abby Hurley
Debbie Jacobson

Debbie Jacobson
Jared Lundholm

Jared Lundholm
Amanda Martin

Amanda Martin
Walt Smith

Walt Smith

Wyoming Department of Education

122 W. 25th St. Suite E200

Cheyenne, WY 82002

Phone: (307) 777-7675 

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