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Control - Elementary
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Microcredential ID : 55
Stack
Algorithms and Programming - Elementary
Credits
0.5 PTSB Recertification Credit

Description

Earners demonstrate their understanding of control structures. Earners demonstrate how to effectively support students in learning sequential execution and simple control structures, including how to combine structures that support complex execution and that control structures specify the order in which instructions are executed within an algorithm or program. This micro-credential also asks earners to design and adapt learning experiences that align with comprehensive K-12 CS standards and plan activities that use evidence-based, CS-specific teaching strategies to develop students’ conceptual understanding and proactively address student misconceptions in CS.

Standards
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4a - Analyze CS curricula. Analyze CS curricula for implementation in their classrooms in terms of CS standards alignment, accuracy, completeness of content, cultural relevance, and accessibility.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4b - Develop standards-aligned learning experiences. Design and adapt learning experiences that align to comprehensive K-12 CS standards.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4e - Plan projects that have personal meaning to students. Plan opportunities for students to create and share open-ended and personally meaningful projects.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Instructional Design
    4g - Inform instruction through assessment. Develop multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. Use resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation.
  • Computer Science Teachers Assocation (CSTA) Standards for CS Teachers > Classroom Practice
    5a - Use inquiry to facilitate student learning. Use inquiry-based learning to enhance student understanding of CS content.
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Control
    2.AP.C.01 - With guidance, independently and collaboratively create programs to accomplish tasks using a programming language, robot device, or unplugged activity that includes sequencing, conditionals, and repetition
  • Wyoming Content and Performance Standards > Control
    5.AP.C.01 - Using grade appropriate content and complexity, create programs that include sequences, events, loops, and conditionals, both individually and collaboratively.
How To Earn This Microcredential

To earn this micro-credential you will process through the ADDIE learning model producing evidence that demonstrates your knowledge of the Wyoming Computer Science Content and Performance Standards and the CSTA Standards for Teachers. Through the ADDIE learning model, you will analyze standards, design/develop and implement a lesson, collect student work artifacts, and evaluate your professional practices.

Fees
There will be no fee assessed for reviewing this microcredential.
Clarifications

This micro-credential is intended for teachers in grades K-6. If you teach middle school or high school grades, you will want to work on the secondary level computer science micro-credentials. The Control micro-credential is one of five micro-credentials that make up the Algorithms & Programming stack. The Algorithms & Programming stack is one of six micro-credential stacks that will lead to a Computer Science Teacher Master Distinction when completed.

Important Terms
Algorithm:

A step-by-step process to complete a task.

App:

A type of application software designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Also known as a mobile application.

Chosen Grade Band:

The teacher/earner can choose which grade band and standard to focus their lesson around.

Complete Knowledge:

Refers to all of the skills listed in the proficient level of the 2019 WY Computer Science Performance Standards (see in the resources) for the chosen standard.

Computational Artifact:

Anything created by a human using a computational thinking process and a computing device. A computational artifact can be, but is not limited to, a program, image, audio, video, presentation, or web page file.

Computer Science:

The study of computing principles, design, and applications (hardware & software); the creation, access, and use of information through algorithms and problem solving, and the impact of computing on society.

Conditionals:

A feature of a programming language that performs different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. (A condition could refer to a conditional statement, conditional expression, or conditional construct.)

Control:

(in general) The power to direct the course of actions. (in programming) The use of elements of programming code to direct which actions take place and the order in which they take place.

Control Structures:

A programming (code) structure that implements control. Conditionals and loops are examples of control structures.

Data :

Information that is collected and used for reference or analysis. Data can be digital or non-digital and can be in many forms, including numbers, text, a show of hands, images, sounds, or video.

Decompose:

To break down into components.

Events:

Any identifiable occurrence that has significance for system hardware or software. User-generated events include keystrokes and mouse clicks; system-generated events include program loading and errors.

Grade Band:

The Computer Science Standards are written in grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12) The standard committee (CSSRC) determined the standard to be met by the end of the grade band. In grades 9-12, the standards provide level 1 and level 2 standards. Level 1 standards include introductory skills. The level 2 standards are intended for students who wish to advance their study of computer science.

K-14:

Computer Science standards ranging from kindergarten into postsecondary education.

Loop:

A programming structure that repeats a sequence of instructions as long as a specific condition is met.

Performance Standards:

The standards all students are expected to learn and be assessed on through the district assessment system by the end-of-the grade band (see 2019 WY Computer Science Performance Standards in the resources).

Prototype:

An early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

Scope and Sequence:

Scope refers to the topics and areas of development within a curriculum, and the sequence is the order in which those skills are taught.

Supporting CS Standard:

All students are expected to be instructed on these CS standards, taught within the context of the performance standards. (see Micro-credential Map by Grade Band in the resources) If no supporting standards are listed on the map, this area is not applicable.

Unplugged:

Tasks take place away from a computer in order to model key concepts.

Variable:

A symbolic name used to keep track of a value that can change while a program is running. Variables are not just used for numbers; they can also hold text, including whole sentences (strings) or logical values (true or false). A variable has a data type and is associated with data storage location; its value is normally changed during the course of program execution.

Background Scenario / How This Will Help You

This micro-credential collection provides earners with the opportunity to document their knowledge and skills in teaching computer science to students in grades K–6. The content provides resources to support understanding.

Earners are encouraged to participate in additional learning opportunities if more extensive learning is needed. Additional learning opportunities may include free online resources, postsecondary courses, and local courses.

The micro-credential structure offers earners flexible pathways and timelines. Earners can complete the micro-credentials in any order that aligns with their classroom timelines and availability. Micro-credentials offer earners the opportunity to submit evidence and receive evaluator feedback. Earners are encouraged to resubmit evidence until mastery is earned. Each resubmission will be reviewed, and updated feedback will be provided.

Evidence Options
Candidates are required to submit multiple pieces of evidence.
Category: Analyze

Analyze: Standards This task requires an analysis of both computer science content standards and the CSTA Standards for Computer Science Teachers.

Analyze: Standards:

All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload it in the evidence section as a PDF. Google Docs Template: https://bit.ly/3ujQr4S

ANALYZE – K-6 Algorithms _ Programming – Control.docx

Category: Design/Develop

This lesson plan shows the planned instruction of your computer science focus standard.

Lesson Plan:

All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload it in the evidence section as a PDF. Google Docs Template: https://bit.ly/3ummSzC

DESIGN_DEVELOP.docx

Category: Implement

Implement the set of activities or lesson plan you designed.

Student Work:

Submit evidence of student learning for your focus standard. Include evidence of students that have met the standard and students that have not met the standard. Examples include videos of students working, completed student worksheets, etc. Annotate each piece of evidence to demonstrate how you facilitated student achievement of the standard.

Category: Evaluate

Evaluate how effective your activities were at promoting student learning of the standards. Use specific examples from the artifacts you submitted in the Implement activity.

Journal:

All instructions are included in the worksheet. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload it in the evidence section as a PDF. Google Docs Version:Template https://bit.ly/3J5Og8X

EVALUATE – Worksheet.docx


Review Criteria

Evidence submissions and reflections will be reviewed for alignment with the assignment guidelines and this proficiency scale. Proficiency scale: https://bit.ly/3gnr7mi

This checklist will help you review your submission materials to ensure you address everything that is expected for this micro-credential. Checklist: https://bit.ly/3LjMBPk

Reflection Prompts

Please provide a self-assessment, a score from 1–4, on each component of the proficiency scale found here: https://bit.ly/3gnr7mi. Provide a few sentences stating where the pieces of evidence that support the scores for each component are located.

If you are resubmitting, please indicate what changes were made in the documents (e.g., highlight, text color) and include "Resubmission #" with the resubmission number in the file title when you upload.


Review Criteria

Content knowledge – The teacher demonstrates accurate and complete knowledge of the content and skills of the standard being taught. (CSTA 4a)

Inform instruction through assessment – The teacher develops multiple forms and modalities of assessment to provide feedback and support. The teacher uses resulting data for instructional decision-making and differentiation. (CSTA 4g)

Supporting standards The teacher identifies and explains the connection of supporting computer science standards to the standard being taught in their lesson.

Vertical alignment – The teacher explains the relationship of the standard in the scope and sequence of computer science standards directly above and below chosen grade band. (CSTA 4b)

Plan projects that have personal meaning to students - Plan opportunities for students to create and share open-ended and personally meaningful projects. (CSTA 4e)

Use inquiry to facilitate student learning - Use inquiry-based learning to enhance student understanding of CS content. (CSTA 5a)

Resources
2nd grade CS Lessons Gilbert Public Schools
https://www.azed.gov/sites/default/files/2019/09/2nd%20Grade%20CS%20Lessons.pdf?id=5d72d03b1dcb251298c0fa91

Lessons aligned to each CS Standard for grades K-2.


5th grade CS Lessons Gilbert Public Schools
https://www.azed.gov/sites/default/files/2019/09/5th%20Grade%20CS%20Lessons.pdf?id=5d72d0c61dcb251298c0fa9e

Lessons aligned to each CS Standard for grades 3 -5


Can't Stop Dancing Scratch Jr Lesson
https://bootuppd.org/lesson-plan/scratchjr/cant-stop-dancing/at-a-glance/

Coders use the repeat block to repeat a silly dance for Scratch Cat using motion blocks. This project aims to introduce young coders to repeating algorithmic sequences in ScratchJr.


Comparing Fractions: Slicing Sandwiches
http://everydaycomputing.org/lessons/action-fractions/grade-4/comparing-fractions-slicing-sandwiches

Students experiment with using loops and variables to create representations of fractions in Scratch.


Computer Science in K-12: An A to Z Handbook on Teaching Programming - Q: Questions and Inquiry (Paid Resource)
https://amzn.to/3sCaM45

This is a handbook for K-12 teachers interested in teaching programming. It's designed to focus on pedagogy and be accessible to beginners and useful for teachers who are more experienced. Each chapter has tons of examples and ideas of what to look out for in terms of misconceptions.


Computer Science in K-12: An A to Z Handbook on Teaching Programming - R: Repetition and recursion (Paid Resource)
https://amzn.to/3sCaM45

This is a handbook for K-12 teachers interested in teaching programming. It's designed to focus on pedagogy and be accessible to beginners and useful for teachers who are more experienced. Each chapter has tons of examples and ideas of what to look out for in terms of misconceptions.


Conditionals with Cards
https://studio.code.org/s/coursed-2021/lessons/12

This lesson merges computer science into the real world by building on their ability to tell if a condition is true or false. Students will learn to use if statements to declare when a certain command should be run, as well as if / else statements to declare when a command should be run and what to run otherwise. Students may not recognize the word conditionals, but most students will understand the idea of using "if" to make sure that some action only occurs when it is supposed to.


Engagement Practices
https://www.engage-csedu.org/engagement/make-it-matter

Engagement Practices are evidence-based teaching practices that faculty can use to help broaden participation in computing.


Five Affordances of Computational Thinking to Support Elementary Mathematics Education
https://www.learntechlib.org/p/174346/

This brief article describes five benefits that elementary teachers identified for integrating CT into their math instruction (via Scratch programming). There is some jargon but mostly it is easy to read. It also has some useful examples. (CSTA 4e)


How to Code a Roller Coaster (Paid Resource)
https://amzn.to/3pzoouS

This children's book tells a story of a girl coding a robot to build a rollercoaster to introduce variables and if-then-else sequences.


How to Code a Sandcastle (Paid Resource)
https://amzn.to/35qwGhV

This children's book tells a story of a girl coding a robot to build a sandcastle to introduce code, sequencing, loops, and decomposition.


Introducing Conditionals: A Rounding Shortcut (unplugged)
http://everydaycomputing.org/lessons/action-fractions/grade-4/introducing-conditionals

Students use rounding rules to think about how to write conditionals.


Loops in Scratch Lesson
https://gettingunstuck.gse.harvard.edu/modules/loops.html

In computer programming, loops are used to repeat a sequence of code multiple times. Loops are a key computational concept that can simplify students’ code, making it easier for students to read and debug their work. In this project, students explore loops through the repeat, repeat until or forever blocks, which can make things happen more than one time


Mathematics Makes Robots Roll
https://pubs.nctm.org/view/journals/mtlt/113/7/article-p565.xml

This article highlights some benefits of bringing codable robots into math instruction (different than the ones in the article above). It also gives a few activity examples and a process for how teachers might think about developing a lesson. There are elements in this resource that could support thinking about authentic tasks and debugging processes.


Starry Night Scratch Jr Lesson
https://bootuppd.org/lesson-plan/scratchjr/starry-night/at-a-glance/

This lesson teaches students how to code various real-life events in a simulation of a starry night. Students will use graphical programming blocks in Scratch Jr and create algorithms to tell the characters what to do.


Teach Kids Computer Science Through Design and Inquiry
https://www.iste.org/explore/Computer-Science/Teach-kids-computer-science-through-design-and-inquiry

Article discussion how computer science is best integrated across content areas by teaching design and inquiry practices in tandem with CS.


The Big Event
https://studio.code.org/s/coursec-2021/lessons/11

Unplugged lesson learn to distinguish events and actions. The students will see activities interrupted by having a "button" pressed on a paper remote. When seeing this event, the class will react with a unique action. Events are widely used in programming and should be easily recognizable after this lesson.


Video: Conditions
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ePXoxLbt0JM&list=PL_ym6QHjS1syp5u4XKsTKb0vnh0q2lnoj&index=6

This song teaches the importance of loops in computer science. Loops make your coding more efficient and can save you time.


Video: What are Loops? Coding for Kids
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1gHN4kvjxAgPEfKhX1eIERUWKnfsCTzxR0Oz99A9Uqss/edit

Video explaining loops in our everyday lives and demonstrating how they are done in programming.


Write and If- Then Adventure Story
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1gHN4kvjxAgPEfKhX1eIERUWKnfsCTzxR0Oz99A9Uqss/edit

Teach students about conditionals by having them create an interactive If-Th3n Adventure story in Google Slides.

Earners
Jamie Fortman

Jamie Fortman
Erika Jorgensen

Erika Jorgensen
Megan Mohr

Megan Mohr
Shebree Moore

Shebree Moore
Kaylee Nygren

Kaylee Nygren
Melissa Price

Melissa Price
Courtney Pushcar

Courtney Pushcar
Melissa Rasmussen

Melissa Rasmussen
Jamy Shassetz

Jamy Shassetz

Wyoming Department of Education

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